There Are Only 22 Countries in the World That the British Haven’t Invaded. In 1982, Britain's resolve in defending its remaining overseas territories was tested when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, acting on a long-standing claim that dated back to the Spanish Empire.  The Malayan Emergency, as it was called, began in 1948 and lasted until 1960, but by 1957, Britain felt confident enough to grant independence to the Federation of Malaya within the Commonwealth. , England's first permanent settlement in the Americas was founded in 1607 in Jamestown, led by Captain John Smith and managed by the Virginia Company.  To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa and elsewhere. 1 decade ago. What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment? Which countries did the British Empire rule? With support from the British abolitionist movement, Parliament enacted the Slave Trade Act in 1807, which abolished the slave trade in the empire. In 1982, the last legal link between Canada and Britain was severed by the Canada Act 1982, which was passed by the British parliament, formally patriating the Canadian Constitution.  Australia and New Zealand achieved similar levels of self-government after 1900, with the Australian colonies federating in 1901. American independence was acknowledged at the Peace of Paris in 1783. Between 1945 and 1965, the number of people under British rule outside the UK itself fell from 700 million to five million during mainly peaceful renegotiations of power. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire. Responsible government was first granted to Nova Scotia in 1848, and was soon extended to the other British North American colonies.  Britain's successful military response to retake the islands during the ensuing Falklands War contributed to reversing the downward trend in Britain's status as a world power. , The right of the Dominions to set their own foreign policy, independent of Britain, was recognised at the 1923 Imperial Conference. , Two years later, the Royal African Company was inaugurated, receiving from King Charles a monopoly of the trade to supply slaves to the British colonies of the Caribbean. Although no longer able to pass any laws that would apply as Australian Commonwealth law, the British Parliament retained the power to legislate for the individual Australian States. , While the Suez Crisis caused British power in the Middle East to weaken, it did not collapse.  Unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, a state of affairs later known as the Pax Britannica, and a foreign policy of "splendid isolation". In North America, France's future as a colonial power effectively ended with the recognition of British claims to Rupert's Land, and the ceding of New France to Britain (leaving a sizeable French-speaking population under British control) and Louisiana to Spain. , Though Britain and the empire emerged victorious from the Second World War, the effects of the conflict were profound, both at home and abroad.  This began with the passing of the Act of Union in 1840, which created the Province of Canada.  Most former British colonies and protectorates are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of equal members, comprising a population of around 2.2 billion people. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. This rivalry in Central Asia came to be known as the "Great Game". British withdrawal from the southern and eastern parts of Africa was not a peaceful process. Settlers in Ireland from Great Britain have left their mark in the form of divided nationalist and unionist communities in Northern Ireland.  Though the invasion force was militarily successful in its objectives, UN intervention and US pressure forced Britain into a humiliating withdrawal of its forces, and Eden resigned. , The changing world order that the war had brought about, in particular the growth of the United States and Japan as naval powers, and the rise of independence movements in India and Ireland, caused a major reassessment of British imperial policy. Many Indians were distressed by the rapid cultural changes imposed by the British.  Fleeing from religious persecution would become the motive of many English would-be colonists to risk the arduous trans-Atlantic voyage: Maryland was founded as a haven for Roman Catholics (1634), Rhode Island (1636) as a colony tolerant of all religions and Connecticut (1639) for Congregationalists. These sixteen nations are distinct and equal legal entities – the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Grenada, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. The primary aim of these companies was to tap into the lucrative spice trade, an effort focused mainly on two regions; the East Indies archipelago, and an important hub in the trade network, India.  Northern Ireland, consisting of six of the 32 Irish counties which had been established as a devolved region under the 1920 Government of Ireland Act, immediately exercised its option under the treaty to retain its existing status within the United Kingdom. , Although England tended to trail behind Portugal, Spain, and France in establishing overseas colonies, it established its first overseas colony in 16th century Ireland by settling it with Protestants from England drawing on precedents dating back to the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169. This effort was rebuffed and later, as the Anglo-Spanish Wars intensified, Elizabeth I gave her blessing to further privateering raids against Spanish ports in the Americas and shipping that was returning across the Atlantic, laden with treasure from the New World. The analysis of the histories of the almost 200 countries in the world found only 22 which have never experienced an invasion by the British. , The war to the south influenced British policy in Canada, where between 40,000 and 100,000 defeated Loyalists had migrated from the new United States following independence.  It was not only Britain's position on the world stage that was at risk: Napoleon threatened to invade Britain itself, just as his armies had overrun many countries of continental Europe. "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 17:28. , On 1 January 1984, Brunei, Britain's last remaining Asian protectorate, was granted independence. What Does George Soros' Open Society Foundations Network Fund? At its height it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. They controlled a quarter of the globe in the late 19th century - and boasted that the sun never set on the empire - meaning it was always daytime somewhere.  Thatcher, seeing parallels with the Falkland Islands, initially wished to hold Hong Kong and proposed British administration with Chinese sovereignty, though this was rejected by China. , In 1951, the Conservative Party returned to power in Britain, under the leadership of Winston Churchill.  A deal was reached in 1984—under the terms of the Sino-British Joint Declaration, Hong Kong would become a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China, maintaining its way of life for at least 50 years. Spain ceded Florida to Britain. In Britain public opinion was divided over the morality of the massacre, between those who saw it as having saved India from anarchy, and those who viewed it with revulsion. At its peak, the British Empire was composed of about one-fifth of the entire world's population and covered about a quarter of the world's total land mass.  At the same time, anti-colonial movements were on the rise in the colonies of European nations. The empire established the use of the English language in regions around the world. , In 1695, the Parliament of Scotland granted a charter to the Company of Scotland, which established a settlement in 1698 on the Isthmus of Panama. There were many factors at play, and we will dive into some of the major ones below.  Macmillan wished to avoid the same kind of colonial war that France was fighting in Algeria, and under his premiership decolonisation proceeded rapidly. Barbados achieved independence in 1966 and the remainder of the eastern Caribbean islands, including the Bahamas, in the 1970s and 1980s, but Anguilla and the Turks and Caicos Islands opted to revert to British rule after they had already started on the path to independence. At its peak, the British Empire was composed of about one-fifth of the entire world's population and covered about a quarter of the world's total land mass. Besieged by neighbouring Spanish colonists of New Granada, and afflicted by malaria, the colony was abandoned two years later.  The Virginia Company's charter was revoked in 1624 and direct control of Virginia was assumed by the crown, thereby founding the Colony of Virginia.  Brunei, which had been a British protectorate since 1888, declined to join the union. 9 years ago.  The parliaments of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, the Irish Free State and Newfoundland were now independent of British legislative control, they could nullify British laws and Britain could no longer pass laws for them without their consent.  Britain again deployed its armed forces to the region, intervening in Oman (1957), Jordan (1958) and Kuwait (1961), though on these occasions with American approval, as the new Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's foreign policy was to remain firmly aligned with the United States. There is also a list of British Overseas Terrotries that are still ruled by the United KIngdom.  Added to this was the cost of suppressing regular slave rebellions. These included what are now Kenya, Sudan, Lesotho, Botswana, Northern Somalia, Egypt, Eastern Ghana, Gambia, Niger, and Benin. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa became self-governing dominions..  Britain was left essentially bankrupt, with insolvency only averted in 1946 after the negotiation of a $US 4.33 billion loan from the United States, the last installment of which was repaid in 2006.  Concerns over communist and foreign plots following the Ghadar conspiracy ensured that war-time strictures were renewed by the Rowlatt Acts. Millions left the British Isles, with the founding settler populations of the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand coming mainly from Britain and Ireland.  In Rhodesia, the 1965 Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the white minority resulted in a civil war that lasted until the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979, which set the terms for recognised independence in 1980, as the new nation of Zimbabwe. In a lecture given in 2011, Professor Richard Evans of Gresham College, describes what he sees as ‘ the innate sense of the superiority of the British over the inhabitants of other countries’ . View this answer. Fact Check: Is the COVID-19 Vaccine Safe? Photograph: Buyenlarge/Getty . The British Empire comprised of Britain, the 'mother country', and the colonies, countries ruled to some degree by and from Britain.  As a result, its constitutional, legal, linguistic, and cultural legacy is widespread.  The British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands and Montserrat also opted to retain ties with Britain, while Guyana achieved independence in 1966.  The important contribution of the Dominions to the war effort was recognised in 1917 by the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George when he invited each of the Dominion Prime Ministers to join an Imperial War Cabinet to co-ordinate imperial policy.  In the following decades the British East India Company gradually increased the size of the territories under its control, either ruling directly or via local rulers under the threat of force from the Presidency Armies, the vast majority of which was composed of Indian sepoys, led by British officers. It is important to note that the advent of British colonization of Africa coincided with the era of scientific racism as represented by social Darwinism (survival of the fittest). "Constitutional Amendment in Canada". In 1983, the British Nationality Act 1981 renamed the existing Crown Colonies as "British Dependent Territories",[note 1] and in 2002 they were renamed the British Overseas Territories. There were many countries that were part of the British Empire. Overseas colonies were attacked and occupied, including those of the Netherlands, which was annexed by Napoleon in 1810. Current, Rise of the "Second" British Empire (1783–1815), East India Company rule and the British Raj in India. Joint Anglo-French financial control over Egypt ended in outright British occupation in 1882. The Mediterranean colony of Malta was amicably granted independence from the UK in 1964 and became the country of Malta, though the idea had been raised in 1955 of integration with Britain. Top Answer. Although granted legislative independence by the Statute of Westminster 1931, vestigial constitutional links had remained in place. The Irish Republican Army simultaneously began a guerrilla war against the British administration. The conflict placed enormous strain on the military, financial, and manpower resources of Britain. Wiki User Answered . As the threat of war with Germany increased during the 1930s, Britain judged the support of Arabs as more important than the establishment of a Jewish homeland, and shifted to a pro-Arab stance, limiting Jewish immigration and in turn triggering a Jewish insurgency. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence resulted in Britain losing some of its oldest and most populous colonies.  Although Britain granted Kuwait independence in 1961, it continued to maintain a military presence in the Middle East for another decade. In the British Caribbean, the percentage of the population of African descent rose from 25% in 1650 to around 80% in 1780, and in the Thirteen Colonies from 10% to 40% over the same period (the majority in the southern colonies). The British Empire was also responsible for large migrations of peoples. British attention soon turned towards Asia, Africa, and the Pacific.  Facing further opposition from abolitionists, the apprenticeship system was abolished in 1838. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, had argued that colonies were redundant, and that free trade should replace the old mercantilist policies that had characterised the first period of colonial expansion, dating back to the protectionism of Spain and Portugal. Answer Save. , During the 1760s and early 1770s, relations between the Thirteen Colonies and Britain became increasingly strained, primarily because of resentment of the British Parliament's attempts to govern and tax American colonists without their consent. Plans for a post-war division of the Ottoman Empire, which had joined the war on Germany's side, were secretly drawn up by Britain and France under the 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement. The British Empire was one of the largest colonial empires in history, which is a masterful feat, given the country's comparatively small size. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states. The East India Company had failed to implement any coordinated policy to deal with the famines during its period of rule. There, they competed for trade supremacy with Portugal and with each other. Eisenhower applied financial leverage by threatening to sell US reserves of the British pound and thereby precipitate a collapse of the British currency. For many British Victorians, India symbolized the Empire. This led to tension, particularly in the Punjab region, where repressive measures culminated in the Amritsar Massacre. The Battle of Plassey in 1757, in which the British defeated the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies, left the British East India Company in control of Bengal and as the major military and political power in India. 10.  The situation remained unresolved in Central Asia for two more decades, with Britain annexing Baluchistan in 1876 and Russia annexing Kirghizia, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. Britain returned Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, and Réunion to France, and Java and Suriname to the Netherlands, while gaining control of Ceylon (1795–1815) and Heligoland. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. The entry of French and Spanish forces into the war tipped the military balance in the Americans' favour and after a decisive defeat at Yorktown in 1781, Britain began negotiating peace terms.  Millions of Muslims crossed from India to Pakistan and Hindus vice versa, and violence between the two communities cost hundreds of thousands of lives.  The events at Suez wounded British national pride, leading one MP to describe it as "Britain's Waterloo" and another to suggest that the country had become an "American satellite". The British Empire provided refuge for religiously persecuted continental Europeans for hundreds of years.  Newfoundland reverted to colonial status in 1933, suffering from financial difficulties during the Great Depression. Between 1945 and 1965, the number of people under British rule outside the UK itself fell from 700 million to 5 million, 3 million of whom were in Hong Kong.  For the slave traders, the trade was extremely profitable, and became a major economic mainstay for such western British cities as Bristol, Glasgow and Liverpool, which formed the third corner of the triangular trade with Africa and the Americas. , The loss of such a large portion of British America, at the time Britain's most populous overseas possession, is seen by some historians as the event defining the transition between the "first" and "second" empires, in which Britain shifted its attention away from the Americas to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa. , In 1922, Egypt, which had been declared a British protectorate at the outbreak of the First World War, was granted formal independence, though it continued to be a British client state until 1954. All soon declared war on Germany. Protestant Empire: Religion and the Making of the British Atlantic World by Carla Gardina Pestan, p. 185.  The scramble continued into the 1890s, and caused Britain to reconsider its decision in 1885 to withdraw from Sudan. , No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. The situation was complicated further by the increasing Cold War rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union. Philip V of Spain renounced his and his descendants' claim to the French throne, and Spain lost its empire in Europe.  In August 1941, Churchill and Roosevelt met and signed the Atlantic Charter, which included the statement that "the rights of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they live" should be respected. The act ended the need for British involvement in changes to the Canadian constitution. These were all places Britain wanted to dominate for access to goods such as rubber, salt, gold, ivory, and other natural products. Unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, a state of affairs later known as the Pax Britannica, and a foreign policy of "splendid isolation". How many countries did the British Empire ever rule? The following year, in 1776, the United States declared independence. Favorite Answer.  The coast of Australia had been discovered for Europeans by the Dutch in 1606, but there was no attempt to colonise it. They originally wanted to use the Americas as the jail, but the Americas revolted in the 1770's so they turned to Australia. Over 2.5 million men served in the armies of the Dominions, as well as many thousands of volunteers from the Crown colonies.  In 1902 Britain occupied both republics, concluding a treaty with the two Boer Republics following the Second Boer War (1899–1902).  With the outbreak of the Anglo-Spanish War of Jenkins' Ear in 1739, Spanish privateers attacked British merchant shipping along the Triangle Trade routes. Alongside the formal control it exerted over its o…  This treaty is considered to be New Zealand's founding document, but differing interpretations of the Maori and English versions of the text have meant that it continues to be a source of dispute. These are the countries that make up the remains of the British Empire: Today it is the primary language of up to 460 million people and is spoken by about 1.5 billion as a first, second or foreign language.  Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu became Commonwealth realms.  The Non-Co-Operation movement was called off in March 1922 following the Chauri Chaura incident, and discontent continued to simmer for the next 25 years. The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.  India's two major political parties—the Indian National Congress (led by Mahatma Gandhi) and the Muslim League (led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah)—had been campaigning for independence for decades, but disagreed as to how it should be implemented. The episode also had major political consequences, helping to persuade the government of Scotland of the merits of a union of the two countries, rather than just crowns.  The matter was complicated by large numbers of Jewish refugees seeking to be admitted to Palestine following the Holocaust, while Arabs were opposed to the creation of a Jewish state. , A similar struggle began in India when the Government of India Act 1919 failed to satisfy demand for independence. With the end of the Victorian Era in 1901, Great Britain was the world's largest ... > CLASS ; COLLEGE ; TESTS ; VOCAB ; LIFE ; TECH ; A List of Countries Colonized by the British in the Victorian Era. , In 1578, Elizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration. It has also held a portion of the present day United States and China.  Iraq, a British mandate since 1920, also gained membership of the League in its own right after achieving independence from Britain in 1932.  The demographics of Britain itself were changed after the Second World War owing to immigration to Britain from its former colonies. The response of Anthony Eden, who had succeeded Churchill as Prime Minister, was to collude with France to engineer an Israeli attack on Egypt that would give Britain and France an excuse to intervene militarily and retake the canal. Over the course of Britain's existence, the country has invaded nine out of 10 of the world's countries, or all but 22 of them in total.  The British choice of system of measurement, the imperial system, continues to be used in some countries in various ways. Victory over Napoleon left Britain without any serious international rival, other than Russia in Central Asia. Military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied heavily on its empire. , In 1603, James VI, King of Scots, ascended (as James I) to the English throne and in 1604 negotiated the Treaty of London, ending hostilities with Spain. A joint force of British and Egyptian troops defeated the Mahdist Army in 1896, and rebuffed an attempted French invasion at Fashoda in 1898.  A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and then, following the union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America.  Although England eclipsed the Netherlands as a colonial power, in the short term the Netherlands' more advanced financial system and the three Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century left it with a stronger position in Asia. , Following the surrender of Japan in the Second World War, anti-Japanese resistance movements in Malaya turned their attention towards the British, who had moved to quickly retake control of the colony, valuing it as a source of rubber and tin. In 1808, Sierra Leone Colony was designated an official British colony for freed slaves. , Britain's declaration of war against Nazi Germany in September 1939 included the Crown colonies and India but did not automatically commit the Dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Newfoundland and South Africa. The British empire in 1850.  The rebellion took six months to suppress, with heavy loss of life on both sides.  The term "dominion status" was officially introduced at the Colonial Conference of 1907. With textiles becoming the larger trade, by 1720, in terms of sales, the British company had overtaken the Dutch.  The UN General Assembly subsequently voted for a plan to partition Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab state. "A Federal Republic: Australia's Constitutional System of Government" by Brian Galligan, Cambridge University Press, p. 122. , States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom, All areas of the world that were ever part of the British Empire.  Forced to find an alternative location after the loss of the Thirteen Colonies in 1783, the British government turned to Australia. In 1770 James Cook charted the eastern coast of Australia while on a scientific voyage, claimed the continent for Britain, and named it New South Wales. It used its wealth, its armies and its navy to defeat rival European countries and to conquer local peoples to establish its empire. Queen Victoria called it “the jewel in the crown”, and she herself took on the title of Empress of India. Vanuatu's independence was delayed because of political conflict between English and French-speaking communities, as the islands had been jointly administered as a condominium with France. Over the course of Britain's existence, the country has invaded nine out of 10 of the world's countries, or all but 22 of them in total.  Sudan was granted independence on 1 January 1956. Prince Charles regarded the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997 as the informal end of the British Empire. Queen Victoria's 1837 ascension to the throne ushered in British empire industrialization and global expansion. Churchill could not ignore Gamal Abdul Nasser's new revolutionary government of Egypt that had taken power in 1952, and the following year it was agreed that British troops would withdraw from the Suez Canal zone and that Sudan would be granted self-determination by 1955, with independence to follow.  The British and French struggles in India became but one theatre of the global Seven Years' War (1756–1763) involving France, Britain, and the other major European powers.  The Anglo-Irish War ended in 1921 with a stalemate and the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, creating the Irish Free State, a Dominion within the British Empire, with effective internal independence but still constitutionally linked with the British Crown.  The Company's eventual end was precipitated by the Indian Rebellion in 1857, a conflict that had begun with the mutiny of sepoys, Indian troops under British officers and discipline. In response Britain invaded the US, but the pre-war boundaries were reaffirmed by the 1814 Treaty of Ghent, ensuring Canada's future would be separate from that of the United States.  This was summarised at the time by the slogan "No taxation without representation", a perceived violation of the guaranteed Rights of Englishmen. The countries continue to commemorate this occasion on Anzac Day. On 16 January 1968, a few weeks after the devaluation of the pound, Prime Minister Harold Wilson and his Defence Secretary Denis Healey announced that British troops would be withdrawn from major military bases East of Suez, which included the ones in the Middle East, and primarily from Malaysia and Singapore by the end of 1971, instead of 1975 as earlier planned. 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